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Babylon – 7″ Edit – Buddy Terry – Awareness

Vietnam War protestors at the March on the Pentagon. 21 to 18 — codified nationally in 1971, in the Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Opposition to United Babylon – 7″ Edit – Buddy Terry – Awareness involvement in the Vietnam War began with demonstrations in 1964 against the escalating role of the U.

Vietnam War and grew into a broad social movement over the ensuing several years. Many in the peace movement within the U. Opposition grew with participation by the African-American civil rights, women’s liberation, and Chicano movements, and sectors of organized labor. The draft, a system of conscription which threatened lower class and middle class registrants drove much of the protest after 1965. Conscientious objectors did play an active role although their numbers were small. Opposition to the war arose during a time of unprecedented student activism which followed the free speech movement and the civil rights movement.

Beyond opposition to the draft, anti-war protesters also made moral arguments against the United States’ involvement in Vietnam. This moral imperative argument against the war was especially popular among American college students, who were more likely than the general public to accuse the United States of having imperialistic goals in Vietnam and to criticize the war as “immoral. Another element of the American opposition to the war was the perception that U. Vietnam, which had been argued as acceptable due to the Domino Theory and the threat of Communism, was not legally justifiable. Media coverage of the war in Vietnam also shook the faith of citizens at home as new media technologies, like television, brought images of wartime conflict to the kitchen table. If America’s soul becomes totally poisoned, part of the autopsy must read “Vietnam. This theory was largely held due to the fall of eastern Europe to communism and the Soviet sphere of influence following World War II.

The media also played a substantial role in the polarization of American opinion regarding the Vietnam War. For example, In 1965 a majority of the media attention focused on military tactics with very little discussion about the necessity for a full scale intervention in Southeast Asia. The media established a sphere of public discourse surrounding the Hawk versus Dove debate. The Dove was a liberal and a critic of the war. It is important to note the Doves did not question the U. Vietnam, nor did they question the morality or legality of the U. Rather, they made pragmatic claims that the war was a mistake.

As the Vietnam War continued to escalate, public disenchantment grew and a variety of different groups were formed or became involved in the movement. Marshals dragging away a Vietnam War protester in Washington, D. There was a great deal of civic unrest on college campuses throughout the 1960s as students became increasingly involved in the Civil Rights Movement, Second Wave Feminism, and anti-war movement. College enrollment reached 9 million by the end of the 1960s. Colleges and universities in America had more students than ever before, and these institutions often tried to restrict student behavior to maintain order on the campuses. To combat this, many college students became active in causes that promoted free speech, student input in the curriculum, and an end to archaic social restrictions. Most student antiwar organizations were locally or campus-based because they were easier to organize and participate in than national groups.

Many artists during the 1960s and 1970s opposed the war and used their creativity and careers to visibly oppose the war. Writers and poets opposed to involvement in the war included Allen Ginsberg, Denise Levertov, Robert Duncan, and Robert Bly. Women were a large part of the antiwar movement, even though they were sometimes relegated to second-class status within the organizations or faced sexism within opposition groups. Mothers and older generations of women joined the opposition movement, as advocates for peace and people opposed to the effects of the war and the draft on the generation of young men. These women saw the draft as one of the most disliked parts of the war machine and sought to undermine the war itself through undermining the draft. Many women in America sympathized with the Vietnamese civilians affected by the war and joined the opposition movement.

They protested the use of napalm, a highly flammable jelly weapon created by the Dow Chemical Company and used as a weapon during the war, by boycotting Saran Wrap, another product made by the company. Faced with the sexism sometimes found in the antiwar movement, New Left, and Civil Rights Movement, some women created their own organizations to establish true equality of the sexes. Some of frustrations of younger women became apparent during the antiwar movement: they desired more radical change and decreased acceptance of societal gender roles than older women activists. Vietnam War rally at the University of Minnesota, St. African-American leaders of earlier decades like W.

Du Bois were often anti-imperialist and anti-capitalist. By the middle of the decade, open condemnation of the war became more common, with figures like Malcolm X and Robert Parris Moses speaking out. Black antiwar groups opposed the war for similar reasons as white groups, but often protested in separate events and sometimes did not cooperate with the ideas of white antiwar leadership. They harshly criticized the draft because poor and minority men were usually most affected by conscription. African Americans involved in the antiwar movement often formed their own groups, such as Black Women Enraged, National Black Anti-War Anti-Draft Union, and National Black Draft Counselors.

Within these groups, however, many African American women were seen as subordinate members by black male leaders. Many Asian Americans were strongly opposed to the Vietnam War. They saw the war as being a bigger action of U. Asians in the United States to the prosecution of the war in Viet Nam. The anti-war sentiment by Asian Americans was fueled by the racial inequality that they faced in the United States.

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